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I need to see real growth in metrics like customer acquisition and trading volume before making a deeper commitment. From what I can tell, the news about EDXM will only be positive for Coinbase if it helps to expand the pie for the crypto industry as a whole. That's right -- they think these 10 stocks are even better buys. Independent nature of EDXM would also restrain the firm from the possibility of conflicts of interest. EDXM needed to prove its utility to stay relevant within the crypto space though. For now, I'm taking a wait-and-see backed crypto exchange with Coinbase. Meanwhile, the EDX exchange would work to accommodate both private and institutional investors.

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Mpeg transport stream basics of investing

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For example, a video ES contains compressed video frames, plus sequence headers, group-of-picture GOP headers, and anything else needed by the decoder to decode the stream. The Systems layer does not define the contents of the ES byte stream. An elementary stream is broken up into packets, forming a packetized elementary stream PES. PES packets have variable length. The contents of the packet are called the payload.

Each PES packet also includes a header. For audio streams, the stream ID has the form xxxxx. For video, the stream ID has the form yyyy. The MPEG-2 standard defines two ways to deliver packetized elementary streams: program streams and transport streams. Program Streams Program streams are designed for environments that are relatively error-free, such as local file storage. In a program stream, the PES packets are multiplexed and organized into units called packs.

Each transport packet has a length of bytes, which is much smaller than a PES packet, and so a single PES packet will be split across several transport packets. This extra level of packetization allows the stream to support much more powerful error correcting techniques — PES packets are used to provide a way of multiplexing several elementary streams into one bigger stream, and are more concerned with identifying the type of data contained in the packet and the time and which it should be decoded and displayed.

Transport packets, on the other hand, are almost purely concerned with providing error correction. So far, we have just considered audio and video data. We may also want to include data streams as part of our service, for applications, Teletext information or other reasons.

These are called private sections , and we will look at them in more detail little later. Since most of the equipment that generates this data will produce a stream of transport packets containing private sections, multiplexing them in to our transport stream is easy. Once we have a complete set of transport packets for the different parts of our services, we can insert them into our final transport stream.

When doing this, we have to be careful to insert packets in the correct order. This is not just a case of ensuring that all of the packets within the stream come in the right order — MPEG defines a strict buffering model for MPEG decoders, and so we have to take care that each elementary stream in our transport stream is given a data rate that is constant enough to ensure that the receiver can decode that stream smoothly, with no buffer underruns of overruns.

A ratio of ten video packets to every audio packet is fairly close to what we would likely see. If we just multiplexed these transport packets together, we would have a transport stream that contains a number of elementary streams with no indication of what type of data is in these streams or how to reconstruct these streams into something that a receiver can present to the user.

This data is encoded in a number of elementary streams that are added to the transport stream during the multiplexing process, and is known as service information. So what does this service information look like? We will examine this in more detail later, but at the simplest level it contains a number of tables that each describe one service in the transport stream.

These tables list each stream in the service and give its PID and the type of data contained in the stream. The anatomy of a DVB transport stream. Information about the types of stream in a service allow the receiver to not only identify which streams are audio and video, but also to identify different types of data stream — separating teletext information from service information from broadcast filesystems for instance.

This makes it easy for the receive to know which streams it should pass on to different parts of its software stack for decoding. Describing the structure in this way, rather than embedding it into the elementary streams, means that we can re-use elementary streams across services. This is shown in the example in the next section of a real transport stream — two elementary streams the streams with PID values of 32 and appear in more than one service.

This allows efficient re-use of streams across services, and is most commonly used for data streams. If our transport stream was to contain more than one service, we can simply multiplex all the audio, video and data streams for all the services together. The service information describes which elementary stream belonged to which service, as well as carrying some other information that is more for the benefit of the viewer than the receiver.

This may include channel names and descriptions, information about the TV schedules, and parental ratings information. So, if we take a look at this from a different perspective, we get this picture: Elementary streams within a transport stream. In this case, we have a transport stream containing eight elementary streams, split across two services. PIDs , and contain video, while the other elementary streams contain audio tracks in different languages. As we can see, for both services, the elementary streams containing the video and one audio track continue across services — this is typically done simply to make life easier for the broadcaster and is not required.

When there are multiple audio tracks, or multiple camera angles, as in the case of service 2 , then there will be several different elementary streams on other PIDs. This does not have to happen at an event boundary. As we can see from the case of the MHP application, this application is only available for part of the event. When it is no longer available, the elementary stream that contains it need not be broadcast any more.

The ability to update the contents of a transport stream in this way offers a great deal of flexibility to the broadcasters. A transport stream is different from the type of stream used in DVDs which is known as a program stream. However, there are two major differences between them. The first difference is that a program stream does not contain as much service information as a transport stream.

Every elementary stream in an MPEG program stream belongs to the same service. Secondly, transport streams are used in environments where there is much more chance of data corruption. Transport streams, on the other hand, may be transmitted to and from satellites, over terrestrial TV networks or over cable TV networks.

This means that they have to be much more resilient, and so transport streams have extra levels of packetization and error-correcting information to help cope with the challenges of the environment that they are used in. Every multiplex is broadcast on a single frequency, and only one multiplex can be broadcast on each frequency.

Within a multiplex, each group of elementary streams that makes up a single TV channel is called a service. This can vary between TV shows on that service for instance, some shows may be broadcast in multiple languages or with multiple camera angles , or it may even change within an TV show. These changes are all perfectly legal in MPEG — not common, but legal. In digital TV systems, each TV show is known as an event. Thus, from one point of view each service consists of a number of elementary streams that are transmitted simultaneously, but from another point of view the service consists of a series of individual events broadcast one after another.

The image below should give you an idea of what a real transport stream looks like. This is a screen grab taken from a transport stream analyzer, showing one of the multiplexes being broadcast on the Astra satellite: An example of a real transport stream.

One thing that you will notice is that in this screenshot, services are referred to as programs. This is an MPEG term, and basically means the same thing as a service. One of the reasons an MPEG-2 program stream is so named is the fact that it only contains a single program.

As you can see from this image, the multiplex contains a number of different services, where each service contains at least one audio stream, at least one video stream and usually several data streams.

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RealtyMarkOct9th MPEG 2 Transport stream, 15 Mbps

A digital TV signal is transmitted as a stream of MPEG-2 data known as a transport stream. Each transport stream has a data rate of up to 40 megabits/second for a cable or satellite . an mpeg-2 transport stream (ts) is a part of the mpeg-2 suite of standards that specifies a relatively complex mechanism of multiplexing video and audio for one or more programs into a . 5/2/ · A stream mark is composed of an MPEG start code and its subsequent data payload. Note Each MPEG-2 TS packet can only be scrambled or in the clear, but not partially .