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This means that a Rafale would be able to take out an enemy aircraft km away in air without even having to cross the Indian air space. But it will take at least a year for the first four Rafales to be completely operationalised with their weapons system.
Also, the much-needed Software Defined Radios SDR have finally been ordered from Israel which will help secure communication without fear of jamming. Wing Commander Abhinandan Varthaman was shot down after he failed to hear command to retreat given by the ground-based command centre because of jamming carried out by the Pakistan Air Force.
The only actual change that has taken place on the ground is that the MiG 29 has been replaced with the Su 30 MKI as the additional fighter at the Srinagar base that houses the 51 Squadron of the MiG 21 Bisons. This means that the Sukhois will have to fly in from other bases in case of yet another skirmish. Also read: Wing Commander Abhinandan being shot down is the real Rafale scandal How Pakistan retaliated for Balakot Around am on 27 February, the first signs of a possible attack emerged as Pakistan shut down its civilian airspace and stopped all commercial flights.
The Pakistani package of 25 fighters, including the F 16s and the Mirages, made their way towards the LoC but did not cross the mutually agreed 10 km cut-off point for fighters. Since many Bollywood films are shot abroad, many foreign extras are employed too.
The popularity of the stars can rise and fall rapidly. Directors compete to hire the most popular stars of the day, who are believed to guarantee the success of a movie though this belief is not always supported by box-office results. Hence many stars make the most of their fame, once they become popular, by making several movies simultaneously.
Only a very few non-Indian actors are able to make a mark in Bollywood, though many have tried from time to time. There have been some exceptions, one recent example is the hit film Rang De Basanti, where the lead actress is Alice Patten, an Englishwoman. Industry connections are no guarantee of a long career: competition is fierce and if film industry scions do not succeed at the box office, their careers will falter.
Some of the biggest stars, such as Dharmendra, Amitabh Bachchan, and Shahrukh Khan have succeeded despite total lack of show business connections. For film clans, see List of Bollywood film clans. Bollywood Sound Sound in Bollywood films is rarely recorded on location otherwise known as sync sound. This creates several problems, since the sound in these films usually occurs a frame or two earlier or later than the mouth movements or gestures.
Commercial Indian films, not just the Hindi-language variety, are known for their lack of ambient sound, so there is a silence underlying everything instead of the background sound and noises usually employed in films to create aurally perceivable depth and environment. The ubiquity of ADR in Bollywood cinema became prevalent in the early s with the arrival of the Arriflex 3 camera, which required a blimp cover in order to shield the sound of the camera, for which it was notorious, from on-location filming.
Commercial Indian filmmakers, known for their speed, never bothered to blimp the camera, and its excessive noise required that everything had to be recreated in the studio. Eventually, this became the standard for Indian films. The trend was bucked in , after a year hiatus of synchronized sound, with the film Lagaan, in which producer-star Aamir Khan insisted that the sound be done on location. Songs from Bollywood movies are generally pre-recorded by professional playback singers, with the actors then lip synching the words to the song on-screen, often while dancing.
While most actors, especially today, are excellent dancers, few are also singers. One notable exception was Kishore Kumar, who starred in several major films in the s while also having a stellar career as a playback singer. Saigal, Suraiyya, and Noor Jehan were also known as both singers and actors. Some actors in the last thirty years have sung one or more songs themselves; for a list, see Singing actors and actresses in Indian cinema.
Playback singers are prominently featured in the opening credits and have their own fans who will go to an otherwise lackluster movie just to hear their favourites. Going by the quality as well as the quantity of the songs they rendered, most notable singers of Bollywood are Lata Mangeshkar, Asha Songs in Bollywood are sung by Bhosle, Geeta Dutt, Shamshad Begum and Alka Yagnik among female professional playback singers, rather than playback singers; and K.
Saigal, Talat Mahmood, Mukesh, Mohammed actors, who lip-sync the lyrics. Narayan and Sonu Nigam among male playback singers. Mohammed Rafi is often considered arguably the finest of the singers that have lent their voice to Bollywood songs, 7 Bollywood followed by Lata Mangeshkar, who, through the course of a career spanning over six decades, has recorded thousands of songs for Indian movies.
The composers of film music, known as music directors, are also well-known. Their songs can make or break a film and usually do. The dancing in Bollywood films, especially older ones, is primarily Bollywood dances usually follow filmi songs modelled on Indian dance: classical dance styles, dances of historic northern Indian courtesans tawaif , or folk dances.
In modern films, Indian dance elements often blend with Western dance styles as seen on MTV or in Broadway musicals , though it is usual to see Western pop and pure classical dance numbers side by side in the same film. The hero or heroine will often perform with a troupe of supporting dancers. Many song-and-dance routines in Indian films feature unrealistically instantaneous shifts of location or changes of costume between verses of a song.
If the hero and heroine dance and sing a duet, it is often staged in beautiful natural surroundings or architecturally grand settings. Songs typically comment on the action taking place in the movie, in several ways. Sometimes, a song is worked into the plot, so that a character has a reason to sing. In this case, the event is often two characters falling in love.
Previously song and dance scenes often used to be shot in Kashmir, but due to political unrest in Kashmir since the end of the s, those scenes have since then often been shot in Western Europe, particularly in Switzerland and Austria. The actress Helen was famous for her cabaret numbers. In modern films, item numbers may be inserted as discotheque sequences, dancing at celebrations, or as stage shows.
Often the soundtrack is more popular than the movie. In the last few years some producers have also been releasing music videos, usually featuring a song from the film. However, some promotional videos feature a song which is not included in the movie.
Dialogues are usually written in an unadorned Hindi that would be understood by the largest possible audience. But that is as far as it goes. Cinematic language, whether in dialogues or lyrics, is often melodramatic and invokes God, family, mother, duty, and self-sacrifice liberally.
Song lyrics are often about love. Bollywood song lyrics, especially in the old movies, frequently use the poetic vocabulary of court Urdu, with many Persian loanwords. Music directors often prefer working with certain lyricists, to the point that the lyricist and composer are seen as a team. This phenomenon is compared to the pairings of American composers and songwriters that created old-time Broadway musicals.
Finances Bollywood films are multi-million dollar productions, with the most expensive productions costing up to crores rupees roughly USD 20 million. Sets, costumes, special effects, and cinematography were less than world-class up until the mid-to-late s, although with some notable exceptions. As Western films and television gain wider distribution in India itself, there is an increasing pressure for Bollywood films to attain the same production levels, particularly in areas such as action and special effects.
Recent Bollywood films have employed international technicians to improve in these areas, such as Krrish which has action choreographed by Hong Kong based Tony Ching. The increasing accessibility to professional action and special effects, coupled with rising film budgets, has seen an explosion in the action and sci-fi genres. Sequences shot overseas have proved a real box office draw, so Mumbai film crews are increasingly filming in Australia, Canada, New Zealand, the United Kingdom, the United States, continental Europe and elsewhere.
Nowadays, Indian producers are winning more and more funding for big-budget films shot within India as well, such as Lagaan, Devdas and other recent films. Funding for Bollywood films often comes from private distributors and a few large studios. Indian banks and financial institutions were forbidden from lending money to movie studios.
However, this ban has now been lifted. The Mumbai underworld has been known to be involved in the production of several films, and are notorious for their patronisation of several prominent film personalities; On occasion, they have been known to use money and muscle power to get their way in cinematic deals.
In , the Central Bureau of Investigation seized all prints of the movie Chori Chori Chupke Chupke after the movie was found to be funded by members of the Mumbai underworld. Often, bootleg DVD copies of movies are available before the prints are officially released in cinemas. Besides catering to the homegrown market, demand for these copies is large amongst some sections of the Indian diaspora, too. In fact, bootleg copies are the only way people in Pakistan can watch Bollywood movies, since the Government of Pakistan has banned their sale, distribution and telecast.
Films are frequently broadcast without compensation by countless small cable TV companies in India and other parts of South Asia. Small convenience stores run by members of the Indian diaspora in the U. The availability of illegal copies of movies on the Internet also contributes to the piracy problem.
Satellite TV, television and imported foreign films are making huge inroads into the domestic Indian entertainment market. In the past, most Bollywood films could make money; now fewer tend to do so. However, most Bollywood producers make money, recouping their investments from many sources of revenue, including selling ancillary rights. There are also increasing returns from theatres in Western countries like the United Kingdom, Canada, and the United States, where Bollywood is slowly getting noticed.
As more Indians migrate to these countries, they form a growing market for upscale Indian films. For a comparison of Hollywood and Bollywood financial figures, see chart . It shows tickets sold in and total revenue estimates. Bollywood sold 3. Advertising Many Indian artists used to make a living by hand-painting movie billboards and posters The well-known artist M.
Hussain used to paint film posters early in his career. This was because human labour was found to be cheaper than printing and distributing publicity material. The old hand-painted posters, once regarded as ephemera, are becoming increasingly collectible as folk art. A popular tune is believed to help pull audiences into the theaters. Most of the better-funded film releases now have their own websites, where browsers can view trailers, stills, and information about the story, cast, and crew.
Product placement, as used in Hollywood, is widely practiced in Bollywood. Advertisers say that a star endorsement boosts sales. Awards The Filmfare Awards ceremony is one of the most prominent film events given for Hindi films in India. Modelled after the poll-based merit format of the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences, individuals may submit their votes in separate categories. A dual voting system was developed in As the Filmfare, the National Film Awards were introduced in These awards are handed out at an annual ceremony presided over by the President of India.
Under this system, in contrast to the National Film Awards, which are decided by a panel appointed by Indian Government, the Filmfare Awards are voted for by both the public and a committee of experts. Mother India , for example, continued to be played in Nigeria decades after its release. Indian movies have also gained ground so as to alter the style of Hausa fashions, songs have also been copied by Hausa singers and stories have influenced the writings of Nigerian novelists.
Unlike in Europe and North America where Indian films largely cater to the expatriate Indian market yearning to keep in touch with their homeland, in West Africa, as in many other parts of the world, such movies rose in popularity despite the lack of a significant Indian audience, where movies are about an alien culture, based on a religion wholly different, and, for the most part, a language that is unintelligible to the viewers.
One such explanation for this lies in the similarities between the two cultures. Other similarities include wearing turbans; the presence of animals in markets; porters carrying large bundles, chewing sugar cane; youths riding Bajaj motor scooters; wedding celebrations, and so forth. Ominously, however, the popularity of old Bollywood versus a new, changing Bollywood seems to be diminishing the popularity on the continent.
The changing style of Bollywood has begun to question such an acceptance. The 11 Bollywood 12 new era features more sexually explicit and violent films. Nigerian viewers, for example, commented that older films of the s and s had culture to the newer, more westernized picturizations. A greater globalised world worked in tandem with the sexualisation of Indian films so as to become more like American films, thus negating the preferred values of an old Bollywood and diminishing Indian soft power.
Many Pakistanis watch Bollywood films, as they understand Hindi due to its linguistic similarity to Urdu. However, a thriving trade in pirated DVDs and illegal cable broadcasts ensured the continued popularity of Bollywood releases in Pakistan.
Exceptions were made for a few films, such as the colorized re-release of the classic Mughal-e-Azam or the film Taj Mahal. Early in , the Pakistani government eased the ban and allowed the import of even more movies; 16 were screened in The new policy is controversial in Pakistan. Since the early s, Bollywood has progressed in Israel. Special channels dedicated to Indian films have been displayed on cable television.
The most popular Hindi films in China were Dr. Since then, Hindi films significantly declined in popularity in China, until the Academy Award nominated Lagaan became the first Indian film to have a nation-wide release there in decades. Rahman to score the soundtrack for his film Warriors of Heaven and Earth Bollywood is also appreciated in France, Germany, the Netherlands, and the Scandinavian countries.
Bollywood films have been dubbed into Russian, and shown in prominent theatres such as Mosfilm and Lenfilm. Ashok Sharma, Indian Ambassador to Suriname, who has served three times in the Commonwealth of Independent States region during his diplomatic career said: The popularity of Bollywood in the CIS dates back to the Soviet days when the films from Hollywood and other Western countries were banned in the Soviet Union.
As there was no means of other cheap Bollywood 13 entertainment, the films from Bollywood provided the Soviets a cheap source of entertainment as they were supposed to be non-controversial and non-political. The films from India, which were also recovering from the disaster of partition and the struggle for freedom from colonial rule, were found to be a good source of providing hope with entertainment to the struggling masses.
The aspirations and needs of the people of both countries matched to a great extent. These films were dubbed in Russian and shown in theatres throughout the Soviet Union. The films from Bollywood also strengthened family values, which was a big factor for their popularity with the government authorities in the Soviet Union.
After the collapse of the Soviet film distribution system, Hollywood occupied the void created in the Russian film market. This made things difficult for Bollywood as it was losing market share to Hollywood. However, Russian newspapers report that there is a renewed interest in Bollywood among young Russians.
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