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The Library of the Franciscan Monastery, Dubrovnik facsimile V, Rubr. III, no. MS Arabe , folio 1v Courtesy of the University of Glasgow, Hunterian Museum. MS Hunter , U. Later published in E. Purchase from the F.

Waller Fund Courtesy of the Aga Khan Museum, Toronto, The Ottoman Empire around This town became the administrative centre of a new eyalet province. However, it was not a century of uninterrupted military success.

The protracted campaigns and sieges, which generally ended with limited gains for the Ottomans, suggest that the empire had reached its territorial limits, a situation confirmed by the loss of Ottoman Hungary following the unsuccessful second Ottoman siege of Vienna in The 17th century was also, however, a period of 1 D. This was an Ottoman Europe almost as much as it was a Venetian or Habsburg one.

Pierce, The Imperial harem. Women and sovereignty in the Ottoman Empire, New York, , see especially ch. Pratt et al. I am grateful to Brill for permission to reproduce some of my work here. Vitkus, ed. Barbary captivity narratives from early modern England, New York, , , p.

Armstrong, Islam. A short history, London, , p. Cahen, art. Restrictions could include various sumptuary laws, a proscription on 4 introduction freedom of worship in their own churches and synagogues, and significant intra-communal economic, administrative and judicial autonomy. They could perform their religious ceremonies freely, appoint clergy and generally make repairs to existing churches and synagogues. Moreover, through the mediation of religious or institutional leaders, they also actively participated in Ottoman society.

A case in point is the Athonite monasteries, which, from the early 15th century, when they were incorporated into the Ottoman polity, negotiated with the Ottomans for protection and also to preserve their position in the socio-cultural hierarchy of Ottoman non-Muslims. Heyd, Ottoman documents on Palestine The Ottoman state tolerated a degree of proselytisation by Christian missionaries, on condition that it was directed towards other non-Muslims and did not upset the status quo; see Goffman, Ottoman Empire, pp.

Imber, K. Kiyotaki and R. Murphey eds , Frontiers of Ottoman studies, London, , vol. Various churches were also expanded over the years, pp. Many fermans command the relevant Ottoman official to investigate in accordance with the law disputes, abuses or requests for repair concerning places of worship, whereas others command that such places should be returned to the rightful community, or prohibit interference in the space by Ottoman state officials, or local Muslim or other non-Muslim communities.

Concerning all this they hold numerous noble firmans, imperial charter[s] […] and legal certificates. This was not to exclude non-Muslims from appealing to, and making use of, the Ottoman Islamic legal system, which they frequently did, often in defiance of their own religious or political authorities. Molly Greene notes in her study of intercommunal relations in Ottoman Candia in the 17th and 18th centuries 14 E.

Christian testimony was also accepted as legally valid, and on occasion Christians acted as vekil or agents for Muslims, as in the case of Georgis who acted as agent for Razie bint Abdullah in her sale of a vineyard. For example, the activities of Muslim and non-Muslim tradesmen and artisans were controlled by the same hisbe regulations, and they worked side by side in the bazaars.

However, this was not exclusively the case, and for most of the duration of the empire there was no official topographical segregation; that is, there were no laws requiring non-Muslims to inhabit particular areas or excluding them from others. This marked a change from earlier Venetian rule, when the Jewish community was confined to a designated quarter. Greene, A shared world.

Dernschwam, Tagebuch einer Reise nach Konstantinopel und Kleinasien, ed. Babinger, Munich, , p. Muslim courts were happy to register such unions, and village priests often blessed such marriages. The Ottoman ulema in the postclassical age , Minneapolis MN, , pp. Matar, Islam in Britain , Cambridge, , p. Koutzakiotis and M. Despite the widespread assumption that non-Muslims were not permitted to serve in the military, the practice of non-Muslims serving in the Ottoman army established in the early years of the empire continued throughout the 17th century.

Although by this time we do not see non-Muslims being granted timars, there were considerable numbers of Christian soldiers in martolosan and sekban units stationed in Ottoman fortresses on the Ottoman-Habsburg frontier. Through the 17th century, we see the religious constitution of the units beginning to change with an increase in the numbers of Muslim soldiers in these nominally Christian units.

Minkov, Conversion to Islam in the Balkans. The timar system was a land-tenure system in which Ottoman military and administrative personnel were allotted the revenues from land and occasionally other tax sources in exchange for state service. A sipahi was an Ottoman cavalryman and provincial administrator. Stein, Guarding the frontier. Ottoman border forts and garrisons in Europe, London, , pp.

Over the centuries, the earlier inclusive attitude towards the incorporation of non-Muslims into the upper echelons of the Ottoman administrative-military structure became less flexible, and by the 17th century conversion to Islam became a prerequisite for the attainment of high office. After the Ottoman conquest of Crete in , Greene notes that an unusually large percentage of the population converted to Islam.

Many local Cretan Christians had already been recruited to fight for the Ottomans during the siege. Once the conflict ended, and as a result of the relaxation of entry conditions, many of these young Cretans realised that, if they converted to Islam, they could enter the janissaries and receive a stipend as a member of the askeri, or military class, thus providing themselves with a secure financial future.

Non-Muslim men could not marry Muslim women; any children of a mixed marriage were assumed to be Muslim; conversion from Islam to another religion was forbidden and technically punishable by death; and non-Muslims often paid more tax, particularly in commercial transactions, and were subject to the cizye or poll-tax. Non-Muslims in the Ottoman Empire who provided some form of military service such as voynuks, martolos or eflaks, and Christian timar holders were exempt from paying it.

In theory, non-Muslims were subject to various sumptuary regulations and were not permitted to own Muslim slaves, though these regulations were rarely enforced. Inalcik, art. Inalcik, Fatih devri, vol. The inhabitants of five Albanian mountain villages were able to negotiate a fixed rate, group discount to the cizye at the end of the 15th century in return for guarding mountain passes.

In fact, the Ottoman state often reduced the tax burden on newly conquered populations. From the origins of the empire in the 14th century, merchants from various Italian city states, including Venice, Genoa and Florence, had lived and traded within the empire. Such communities of ex-patriot merchants continued to flourish throughout the 17th century. From the end of the 16th century, they were also joined by communities of English merchants after Queen Elizabeth I granted authorisation for the establishment of the Levant Company to facilitate trade with the Ottoman Empire, and the Ottomans agreed to capitulatory treaties.

The Ottomans responded positively to English requests to establish trade relations not because they wanted to sell goods in English markets, but because they wanted access to English silver, tin, gunpowder and ships. The capitulary 41 C.

By the early 17th century, these three European states and the Italian city states had established significant commercial networks in the Ottoman Empire, which, while they were relatively decentralised in terms of relations to the home governments, were often closely intertwined with Ottoman social and political life. Many young men, keen to seek their fortune or experience adventure, travelled not only to the trading entrepots of the Ottoman Empire, but also to the North African privateering ports of Algiers, Tunis and Tripoli, to seek employment building ships or sailing them.

Attempting to convert Muslims to another religion was strictly prohibited in the Ottoman Empire, as was apostasy by Muslims. However, missionary work among non-Muslim communities was permitted, to a degree. When they were bothered by Ottoman officials or the leaders of other faiths, they had no hesitation in seeking recourse from the Ottoman judicial system.

The Ottoman authorities responded that they should be left to wander and preach in peace. Robert Frampton was appointed as Anglican chaplain to the English factory at Aleppo in He preached the Anglican creed to followers of the various Eastern Christian churches, engaged in discussions with both Orthodox and Latin clerics, and prepared Greek and Armenian translations of the Anglican catechism.

Bobovius was originally from Poland now part of the Ukraine but was captured as a young man in about and sold as a slave in Istanbul, where he converted to Islam and for 21 years was educated at the Ottoman palace as a musician and servant. While the Ottoman Empire was certainly not tolerant or unprejudiced in the modern sense of the terms, it did, unlike contemporary western European states, permit sizeable non-Muslim communities to live freely as Ottoman subjects, and also allowed foreign non-Muslims to live, work, worship and even preach freely within its domains.

Within the first 13 years of his reign, he had unified a large territory that was now directly under his political control. With some occasional regressions, this territory remained unified throughout the next two centuries. Shortly before the turn of the century, Isfahan, located in the centre of Iran, was proclaimed the new capital of the Safavids. This change of capital had both political and commercial advantages for the country.

Its central location could make the state less vulnerable to the threat of the Ottomans. The Persian Gulf was also in easy reach, particularly for the silk trade, whose merchants flourished in this city. His recapture of the Caucasus was achieved with much bloodshed. Their main with Muslim scholars at the prompting of the Byzantine emperor. This would date the meeting to before , when he died. Lejla Demiri is currently preparing an entry for the on-line version of CMR. Lapidus, Islamic societies to the nineteenth century.

A global history, Cambridge, , pp. Haneda and R. Their other borders, however, were increasingly threatened by their other neighbours. In the North Caucasus, the Safavids fought against the Russians They also had to resist the Mughals who wanted to recapture Kandahar in and The silk trade with the Europeans, which throughout the 17th century brought Iranian merchants a fortune, stopped some years before the turn of the century, road security lapsed, and border areas became vulnerable.

However, it was another two decades before the system irrevocably collapsed. In addition, there were also other minorities such as Zoroastrians, Jews and Christians among them Armenians, Assyrians, Chaldeans and Catholics. He welcomed the Augustinians and Carmelites, among others, and allowed them to establish convents in his realm. The Augustinians were the first Christian groups who started diplomatic missions in Iran.

In , they 52 Dale, Muslim empires, pp. Jackson and L. Lockhart eds , The Cambridge history of Iran, vol. Matthee, Persia in crisis. Safavid decline and the fall of Isfahan, London, , pp. The Carmelites, who established a library in their convent in Isfahan, had no hesitation in supplying Muslim scholars with the books they possessed and engaged with them in theological debates. The most distinguished Carmelite friar in Iran was Juan Tadeo d. Two decades after the Carmelites, in , a group of French Capuchins came.

They were also trying to unite the Christian churches of the region, particularly the Armenians, with the Roman Catholic Church. Perhaps more than the other orders, the Jesuits engaged with Muslim scholars.

These missionaries hailed from countries with which the Safavid shah hoped to ally himself in his struggle against his main rivals, the Ottomans. The missionaries also served as intermediaries with the Papacy and major Christian countries such as Spain and France. Within a short period, the Armenians of New Julfa became successful merchants, trading raw silk with Europe. In addition to the Armenians, many Christians from Georgia were taken captive by the Safavids and brought to Iran.

This was attempted largely through the provision of financial incentives, such as the legal process whereby a convert to Islam would automatically inherit the property of his deceased kin. Discrimination against and oppression of non-Muslims continued in the following decades of the century. As a result, most of the major Jewish communities appear to have converted during this period.

The 17th century was perhaps the first time in history in which Christian-Muslim interreligious discourse was written in Persian. Such texts first emerged at the Mughal courts of Akbar r. It then spread into Safavid Persia, as is exemplified in several Persian writings.

While visiting Isfahan, Pietro della Valle d. Two Christian theologians, Bonaventura Malvasia and Filippo Guadagnoli, who were familiar with Arabic but not Persian, were commissioned to write responses in Latin. This work was initially written in Arabic, and in part in response to an Arabic treatise in defence of Christianity by Gabriel de Chinon. This led to mass movements of people.

Pizzorusso and A. So many moved to Constantinople that in an edict was issued ordering them to return home. See G. Bournoutian and P. Hakoyaban ed. Gregorian Church, and Roman Catholics comprising Western missionaries and recent converts who had been recruited mainly from among the Armenians. Nevertheless, following the Ottoman-Safavid treaty of , the Georgian kingdoms of Kartli and Kakheti found themselves within the Safavid sphere of influence and, in the years that followed, the Safavids effectively crushed the resistance of local rulers.

An abrupt change occurred with the Ottoman invasion of Transcaucasia in , when the Safavids were forced to reconcile themselves with their former enemy, King Simon I of Kartli r. In the years , the shah led several punitive expeditions to Kakheti and ordered a forced migration of thousands of Georgians, who were resettled to central Iran.

Floor and E. Herzig eds , Iran and the world in the Safavid age, London, , , pp. This political-religious compromise found its best embodiment in the person of Rostom, king of Kartli in the 3 J. Churchill and J.

Churchill eds , A collection of voyages and travels, London, , Minorsky ed. Persian text in facsimile B. On the one hand, he initiated the restoration of numerous churches in his kingdom, regularly attended Christian liturgy, and married a Mingrelian princess at a ceremony conducted according to Christian rites.

Also, Georgian Christian chroniclers, typically recruited from among the clergy, were more concerned with those Georgians, such as King Luarsab II of Kartli d. Persian Muslim writers might have likewise found it troublesome to admit that many new Muslims were not entirely devout in their new faith, even though a certain mistrust of Georgian Muslims was always present in Persia, and perhaps contributed to the fall of the Safavid dynasty. Beradze and K. Motika and M.

As a result, the major centre of Armenian religious and cultural life, the Holy See of Etchmiadzin, again fell within the borders of the Safavid Empire. This was situated on the left shore of the River Zayandeh and was named New Julfa after their place of origin.

As a result, Armenians living in Safavid Iran in the 17th century had two main foci of cultural and communal life: the seat of the catholicos — the head of the Armenian Apostolic Church — in Etchmiadzin, and the Armenian community of New Julfa, whose members acted as bankers to the shahs and engaged in global commercial networks extending from Lhasa and Manila to Amsterdan and Venice.

In , he composed a general history, commissioned by Catholicos Philippos r. Although the Safavid shahs valued the commercial skills of their Armenian subjects, which contributed to the state treasury, the danger of forced conversion to Islam or other forms of religious persecution was never entirely absent.

In , for instance, Armenians were driven from various quarters of Isfahan and forced to limit their settlement to 9 V. Aslanian, From the Indian Ocean to the Mediterranean. For a French translation, see M. Brosset ed. Bournoutian ed.

Correspondance, Paris, , pp. Carswell, New Julfa. The Armenian churches and other buildings, Oxford, , pp. Papazjan ed. Ukazy, vol. Kostikyan ed. The fact that they obtained such a decree over a century after the issue of the earlier fatva see n. Thus, in order to maintain friendly relations with the latter they tolerated the activity of the former, on the sole condition that they limit their missionary activity to non-Muslims.

This policy provided a favourable space for Catholic missionary activity, incomparably better than in other Islamic states of the time. Roman Catholics The presence of the Catholic Church in Iran can be traced back to the 14th century, when a short-lived archdiocese was established at Soltaniyeh by Dominican friars. First, the naval triumph of the Holy League at Lepanto raised hopes in Madrid and Rome of ultimate victory over 16 R.

He was desperately looking for allies against the Ottomans, who had deprived him of large tracts of his patrimony in the disastrous war of In , the embassy visited Prague, Rome and Valladolid. The best-known among the embassy members was Antonio de Gouvea, the future author of an extensive travel account.

The third and last visit to Iran by its new bishop in ended with his abrupt departure, due to the rising Portuguese-Iranian tensions regarding Bahrain and Hormuz and the execution of the former Persian envoy to Spain. Unlike the Portuguese authorities in India, who relied for their missions on Portuguese Augustinians, the pope chose Spanish Discalced Carmelites. Kortepeter, Ottoman imperialism during the Reformation.

Europe and the Caucasus, New York, Augustinho a Persia, Lisbon, ; on Gouvea, see also R. Matthee, art. Chick ed. The Safavids and the papal mission of the 17th and 18th centuries, London, , vol. Nonetheless, Juan Tadeo remained in Iran until , when he left for Europe. The French entry into competition over the patronage of the Catholic Church in Iran was already visible in , when the Augustinians and Carmelites, who often vied with each other for pre-eminence and prestige, were joined by French Capuchins, sent on the initiative of Cardinal de Richelieu.

Fluent in Persian and Turkish, he became the head of the mission in and engaged in various debates with Persian courtiers and 24 His inheritance, today preserved in the National Library at Naples, consists of a large volume containing almost copies of Persian letters sent to Europe, or Persian translations of letters dispatched from Europe to Iran; for an edition, see M. Thomas and F. Vahman, art. His prudence sometimes drew the criticism of other European representatives, who accused him of representing the French king rather than the pope.

The most renowned among them was 29 For just one example, see The London Gazette of May no. On the international context and the Iranian policy of that time, see R. Eslami ed. Szkic historyczny, Cracow, , pp. Nonetheless, secret conversions of Muslims did occur, although new Christians were usually smuggled to Europe, as it was deemed too risky for them to stay in Iran.

The missionaries also clandestinely baptised terminally ill Muslim children, to whose cure they were often called because of their medical knowledge. Public debates between Catholic missionaries and Muslim clerics also took place, and were sometimes attended and enjoyed by the shahs, especially in the first half of the 17th century, although they later began to provoke protests from zealous Muslims. Matthee will be published soon by I. Abisaab, Converting Persia. Religion and power in the Safavid Empire, London, , pp.

Much missionary effort was spent on converting Armenians, who were the most prominent Christian community in Iran. A number of catholicoi of Etchmiadzin did in fact enter into negotiations, and some of them even declared obedience to the pope — most notably 35 J.

The sumptuously illustrated French medieval manuscript, which had apparently belonged to St Louis, was later provided with Latin captions, and in the 17th century Persian captions were added in Iran in order to explain the meaning of the scenes from the Old Testament. More successful were the proselytising efforts undertaken among the lay community of New Julfa, the strongest economic centre of Safavid Iran. From , a number of members of the prominent merchant Shahremanian family also known as Shariman or Sceriman converted to Catholicism.

In the following years, they became the wealthiest patrons of Catholicism in Iran with extended patronage links in Europe, and in were even granted the title of counts of Hungary by the Habsburg Emperor Leopold I r. In , an Armenian printing house was established in New Julfa to fight Catholic propaganda. Sbornik statej, Moscow, , , p. Aslanian and H.

Berberian, art. With regard to Russia, at the turn of the 16th century the tsars were already invoking common faith in their embassies to Orthodox Georgia,43 but it was only under Tsar Peter the Great r. A pluriconfessional encounter. Izdebski and D. Studies in the medieval and early modern periods, Cracow, , Allen ed. Christian communities under the Ottomans in the 17th century Eugenia Kermeli And you should also do this, my brother, you should firstly fear the basileus and pay your royal dues and you should honour the patriarch, the metropolitan, the monk and the priest.

Kiss their hands and pay them due respect. Papa Synadinos 1 None could have summed up the world of an Ottoman Christian in the early modern period in fewer words than the humble priest Papa Synadinos of Serres in his work known as the Chronicle of Serres. It was written in demotic Greek in the s by a parish priest who sought to supplement his income by working as a clerk in the metropolitan see of Serres in Macedonia.

He laments the murder of Sultan Osman II r. Odorico ed. Adanir and S. Faroqhi eds , The Ottomans and the Balkans. A discussion of historiography, Leiden, , ; O. Bues ed. The Baltic countries, the Balkans, and northern Italy, Wiesbaden, , , pp. Faroqhi, Men of modest substance. White, The climate of rebellion in the early modern Ottoman Empire, Cambridge, , p. Tezcan, The second Ottoman empire. Political and social transformation in the early modern world, Cambridge, , pp. Runciman, The great church in captivity, Cambridge, , p.

Sisman, The burden of silence. Darling, Revenue raising and legitimacy. Tax collection and finance administration in the Ottoman Empire , Leiden, , pp. To this general picture of the internal situation of the Ottoman Empire, we would have to add the catalytic effect of the European Reformation on the ideological world of Eastern Christians, as well as the more evident struggle of Catholic and Protestant states to become more deeply involved in the internal affairs of the empire as protectors of its Christian populations.

Gunnar Hering has depicted the complexity of European and Ottoman politics towards Poland and Crimea in the period to by examining the deeds and thought of the Ecumenical Patriarch Cyril Loucaris, who made strenuous attempts to introduce Calvinist principles into the Orthodox Church. Decisions often went against synodical decisions, eroding Christian ecclesiastical authority. Masters, Christians and Jews in the Ottoman Arab world. The roots of sectarianism, Cambridge, , p.

Gibb and H. Bowen, Islamic society and the West. A study of the impact of Western civilization on Moslem culture in the Near East, vol. Michael Ursinus points to the use of the term millet before the 19th century, and adds that intensified missionary activity in the 17th century may have forced the Ottoman central administration to employ the term to describe many more Christian communities.

The abandonment of outdated theoretical frameworks leads us to reassess the millet theory and to a focus instead on the issue of individual Christians and their communities as active agents within Ottoman society independent of larger uniform entities. Ursinus, art. For these forums, see E.

Woodhead ed. It supports the restoration of churches, the creation of museums, the organization of international conferences and other cultural activities, the publication of books, the exhibition of works of art. It also supports in a variety of ways the preservation of the environment. Box , Lefkosia Tel: 22 67 71 34, 22 66 43 53, Fax: 22 66 28 98 E-mail: info cultural.

The Foundation was born out of the Bank of Cyprus growing interest to promote the cultural and natural heritage of the island. The Cultural Foundation is housed in the old administrative building of the Bank of Cyprus, situated in the historic district near the Phaneromeni Church, in the old town of Lefkosia within the Venetian walls.

In the courtyard of the building, at the open air theatre musical and theatrical performances are staged. Pierides Foundation Z. Kitieos 4, P. Box , Larnaka Tel: 24 65 13 45, Fax: 24 65 72 27 E-mail: centrart spidernet. It covers a wide spectrum of different fields from archaeology to contemporary art by organising prestigeous exhibitions, international symposia, conferences, lectures and publications.

During the rest of the Public Holidays see page the major archaeological sites: Kolossi Castle, Kourion site, Sanctuary of Apollo, Tombs of the Kings, Mosaics in Pafos, Hala Sultan Tekke, Choirokoitia and the Archaeological site of Amathous, remain open from — hrs hrs summer. The Cyprus Archaeological Museum in Lefkosia remains also open from — hrs. Opening and closing times of Museums and Archaeological sites, as well as entrance fees, are subject to alterations without notice.

During the summer period June-August the archaeological sites stay open longer. Agios Ioannis St. Tuesday—Sunday: — closed on Public Holidays Entrance free. Entrance free. Saturday: — Use of Baths charged : Tue.

Tel: 22 62 39 50 Open daily closed from to hrs The convent is open for group visits only on Monday, Tuesday and Thursday from to hrs. Machairas Monastery 41 km south of Lefkosia through Deftera and Pera villages. Tel: 22 35 93 34 Open daily from to hrs The monastery is open for group visits only on Monday, Tuesday and Thursday from to hrs.

Carob Museum Vasilissis Str. Water Museum Fr. Roosevelt Avenue 66, P. Cyprus Wine Museum 42 Pafos Str. Pastelli Museum Anogyra village. To arrange a visit please contact tel: 25 22 23 57 Entrance free 8. Oleastro - The House of Olive Anogyra village. Vasa Koilaniou - Ecclesiastical Museum Vasa village. To arrange a visit please contact the priest Tel: 25 94 42 27 Entrance free. Pylavakion Museum Pottery Foini village.

Tel: 25 42 15 For a visit please contact: 99 60 81 96, 25 47 10 08 Fassoula - Agricultural Museum Fassoula village. Agios Mamas Church Louvaras village, 26km from Lemesos. For a visit please contact: 99 31 88 32 or 25 54 21 42 Tel: 25 82 65 62, Fax: 25 82 65 63 Open daily: — Closed on Saturdays. Kition, Archaeological Site Approx. Stavrovouni Monastery 9 km off the Lefkosia - Lemesos road, 40 km from Larnaka. Tel: 22 53 36 30 September — March: — and — April — August: — and — Note: Women are not allowed to visit Stavrovouni Monastery.

Men may visit the monastery, dressed properly. The use of cameras or video—cameras is prohibited. Daily, any reasonable hour. Papandreou Tel: 24 62 10 48 Nov. Byzantine Museum Adjoined to the Bishopric near Ag. April—October : —, — Mon. Chrysorrogiatissa monastery 40 km northeast of Pafos, Tel: 26 72 24 57 The monastery is also reached from Kykkos monastery through Pafos forest.

The monastery is open daily. The Icons and Utensils Treasury is located within the premises of Chrysorogiatissa monastery. May—August: — and May-October: Mon. Sotira - Ecclesiastical Museum Sotira village For a visit please contact the village priest, Tel: 23 82 39 32 Entrance free. For a visit please contact Mr. Andreas Achilleos at the coffee shop. Tel: 22 92 23 94, 99 90 89 16 4. Agios Nikolaos tis Stegis Church 5 km from Kakopetria village.

Kakopetria Old Village The old quarter of the village has been declared protected and old houses have been restored. Panagia tou Moutoulla Church Moutoullas village. Please contact Mr. Kostas Gregoriou at the coffee shop to arrange a visit. Tel: 22 95 23 41 8. Stavros tou Agiasmati Church Platanistassa village. Vassilis Hadjigeorgiou at the coffee shop to arrange a visit. Tel: 22 65 25 62, 99 58 72 92 48 Trooditissa Monastery The monastery is a retreat for prayer, therefore it is closed for visits.

Timios Stavros Church Pelendri village, 32km from Lemesos. For visit please contact Mrs Anastasia Papachristodoulou, Tel: 25 55 23 69 4. Panagia Katholiki Church Pelendri village, 32km from Lemesos. For a visit please contact Mrs Panagiota Socratous, Tel: 25 55 22 68, 99 34 07 52, 99 99 49 Both international and local brands of baby food, napkins, disposable diapers, baby cosmetics, anti—rash creams etc. Baby-sitting services Almost all hotels in Cyprus offer baby—sitting facilities provided that arrangements with the reception are made in advance.

Banking Commercial banks in Cyprus offer a wide range of banking services, in euro as well as in foreign currencies, and have correspondents in most major cities around the world. Commercial banking is fully compliant with EU banking law. Commercial banks are supervised by the Central Bank of Cyprus. Contricuting to the implementation of monetary policy in the euro area; 2. Ensuring the stability of the financial system; 3. Promoting, regulating and overseeing the smooth operation of payment and settlement systems; 4.

Christmas Eve is a working day for banks. Banks at Larnaka and Pafos International Airports provide exchange bureaux services on a hour basis. Similar facilities are also available at Lemesos harbour. Rates of exchange are published daily in the local press and are broadcast through the media. Most publications can be obtained both in Cyprus and abroad from various bookshops. Box , Lefkosia Tel: , Fax: E-mail: socratis cci. Being a symbol of environmental quality, it serves as an incentive for local authorities and the private sector to take measures for the overall improvement of the coastal areas in accordance with the above-mentioned criteria.

Cyprus, as a Mediterranean tourism destination, has recognised the importance of this campaign as one way in which tourism can be better integrated with the coastal 51 environment. It is our contribution that the European Blue flag Campaign recognizes. For further information, please contact: Cyprus Tourism Organisation P. Kazepi visitcyprus.

From Agia Napa to Paralimni, Protaras area and back. From Polis Latsi along the Akamas coast and back. For further information visitors are requested to contact the Sightseeing Tour Operators, pages Many of these churches can be reached by public transport. Others, however, are accessible only by private car or private taxi, as they stand away from main roads and inhabited areas.

Because of the eminent importance of the icons and frescoes, most churches and monasteries are kept locked. Some of the monasteries have visiting hours which have to be respected by visitors. See Archaelogical sites, Museums and other places of interest pages Important Notes — Wearing shorts, backless tops, very short dresses etc. Machairas and Agios Irakleidios that the guiding should be done outsite the monasteries.

Facilities available in camping sites include: showers, toilets, washing facilities, mini—market and usually a snack—bar or restaurant. The opening period for each camping site is indicative and customers are advised to confirm whether the sites are open by contacting either the camping sites or any Cyprus Tourism Organisation office in Cyprus or abroad.

Open all year round. Open: April — October 3. Polis Camping Site Polis, 37 km from the town of Pafos Tel: 26 81 50 80, Fax: 26 81 50 81 The camping site is situated on the beach in a pleasant eucalyptus grove metres from Polis town centre. Open from March till the end of October. Open from May till end of October weather permitting. Car Breakdown Emergency Service Private companies offer 24hrs breakdown service all over the island.

There are emergency phones along the motorway. Any of the car breakdown services can be contacted through the operator. Some of these companies are the following: A. Cyprus 24hours Breakdown Chr. Rescueline Auto Services Ltd. Vyzantos 3, Lemesos, Tel: 25 56 33 66 Auto Clinic Marios Manis 22, Pafos, Tel: 26 93 38 42 56 Odiki road express services Tel: Car Driving in Cyprus Driving in Cyprus is most advisable as regular transport service is not available to all remote areas where many places of interest are to be found.

Fairly good surfaced roads complying with international traffic requirements link the towns and the various villages. Minor roads and forest roads are still largely unsurfaced but in good to fair condition. Appropriate care should be taken when using these roads, especially during wet weather. Visitors wishing to bring their car to Cyprus can do so, for a period up to 3 months provided the car has a valid registration licence of its country of origin.

Therefore the use of a mobile phone is strictly prohibited. Non European citizens and citizens who come from any country other than the previously mentioned countries are allowed to drive holding their Nations Driving License for a period of about 30 days this period is not strictly restricted. If they are holders of an international driving license they are allowed to drive provided their license is valid. U, as far as Insurance cover is concerned, all 27 E.

In the latter case the International Insurance Bureau of his country will be held responsible to compensate the claimant as a result of the Guarantee Agreement in force. Unified Agreement or Internal Regulations. If a foreign visitor brings into Cyprus a motor vehicle bearing a registration plate not belonging to one of the 32 European Countries, then the Cyprus Authorities should check whether the foreign motorist has a valid Green Card In force for Cyprus.

A foreign visitor may have a Green Card in force, even if his country of origin is not a member of the Green Card System. It is possible for a motorist to have a valid Green Card in force, even if his car bears a motor plate of a European country.

In this case, the motor plate Country prevails over the Green Card Agreement and the Police Authorities should allow the vehicle to enter Cyprus without checking his Green Card. If a foreign motorist enters Cyprus and does not have a registration plate belonging to one of the 32 European Countries, but does not have a Green Card valid for Cyprus either, then this motorist should not be allowed to drive his car in the territory of Cyprus.

He should be asked first to secure cover to drive in Cyprus for the period he is expecting to stay on the island, with a Cypriot Insurer. It is made clear that the granting of such cover is on the absolute discretion of the Insurance Companies and, in the presence of negative features, he will have a problem to secure Insurance cover. It is, therefore, advisable for a non-European motorist to secure a Green Card before entering Cyprus.

The 5th Motor Insurance Directive has also been transposed into the Cyprus legislature as from the 22nd June Box: , CY Lefkosia E-mail: mif cytanet. The permissible limit in breath is up to 22 micrograms of alcohol in millilitres of exhaled air. Parking meters do not operate on Saturday afternoons, Sundays and Public Holidays. Along a single yellow line, loading and unloading is allowed but parking is prohibited at all times.

Petrol Stations Stay Open: Monday-Friday: — April 1 — September 30 Monday-Friday: — October 1 — March 31 Saturday: — Lefkosia district: Wednesday: — Lemesos, Larnaka, Pafos and Ammochostos districts: Tuesday: — Petrol stations are equipped with petrol vending machines, accepting bank notes and credit cards. Vending machines operate during non-working hours, on weekends and on holidays. Petrol stations in rural areas may be found open on Weekends and on Holidays from hrs.

A list of petrol stations can be found in the yellow pages of the Telephone Directory. Mylona 12, CY Lefkosia P. The above prices include insurance and V. Rates vary according to the number of days of rent, period of the year and extras. The car can be delivered and collected at the airports by prior arrangement.

The car is usually delivered to the customer with a full tank paid for by the customer. If the car is returned with full tank the customer receives a refund, unless stated otherwise in the contract. Drivers under 25 years of age holding a driving licence for less than 3 years at the time of rental, must inform the car rental company so that under-age insurance coverage is provided.

Customers should read all the information on the rental car agreement and demand fulfilment of all their rights when they rent a car. The insurance is only valid within the area under the control of the Republic of Cyprus.

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Bitcoin chart technical analysis Many fermans command the relevant Ottoman official to investigate in accordance with the law disputes, abuses or requests for repair concerning places of worship, whereas others command that such places should be returned to the rightful community, or prohibit interference in the space by Ottoman state officials, or local Muslim or other non-Muslim communities. Most 18 R. Frazee, Catholics and sultans. Theodotou 18, Lefkosia Tel: 4. BoxLefkosia Tel:Fax: E-mail: info imtamasou.
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Dositheou street nicosia betting The Turquerie movement, born out of this fascination with Ottoman culture, was dominant between the 16th and 18th centuries. The most renowned among them was 29 For just one example, see The London Gazette of May no. Ltd Leoforos Omirou 17, P. Today, Turkey, an aspiring member of the European Union, still stands guilty of international aggression against a member-state of the EU and the UN. Fees: The prescribed fees for the Municipality, plus the fees for the church. Roosevelt Avenue 66, P. Faroqhi, Men of modest substance.
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Make the world a better place drawings of animals Transportation around the island can be arranged if prior notice is given to the transport companies. Moreover, his biblical genealogy is authenticated by his similarity to Stephen the Protomartyr in looking up to heaven before being stoned Actsand the similarities he bears to Christ of being struck, beaten on the head, spat upon and slapped Matthew ; Mark ; Johnliterally turning the cheek to one of his attackers Matthew ; Lukeand appearing as a lamb among wolves Luke If a foreign motorist enters Dositheou street nicosia betting and does not have a registration plate belonging to one of the 32 European Countries, but does not have a Green Card valid for Cyprus either, then this motorist should not be allowed to drive his car in the territory of Cyprus. David Baer discusses in detail the era of Mehmed IV r. Fees are subject to change.
Dositheou street nicosia betting Over the centuries, the earlier inclusive attitude towards the incorporation of non-Muslims into the upper echelons of the Ottoman administrative-military structure became less flexible, and by the 17th century conversion to Islam became a prerequisite for the attainment of high office. Https://, this is compounded by frequent references to the Holy Spirit indwelling the youth and strengthening him to endure the prolonged interrogations and to remain unwavering in his commitment to Christ. K-Cineplex MakedonitissisStrovolos Tel: 2. Moreover, his biblical genealogy is authenticated by his similarity to Https:// the Protomartyr in looking up to heaven before being stoned Actsand the similarities he bears to Christ of being struck, beaten on the head, spat upon and slapped Matthew ; Mark ; Johnliterally turning the cheek to one of his attackers Matthew ; Lukeand appearing as a lamb among wolves Luke Turkey put into operation its plan to partition Cyprus, an objective advocated by Dositheou street nicosia betting for many years.
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Next bond actor betting on sports Frazee, Catholics and sultans. BoxLefkosia Tel: 22 45 63 01, Fax: 22 45 63 09 27 The Cyprus Research Centre, established in to conduct research into the history and civilisation of Cyprus, employs both permanent research staff and external collaborators for this purpose. Inspired by these factors, some of the best-known and most influential composers of the 18th century composed pieces that were associated with Eastern culture, using Turkish rhythmic and melodic structures, Janissary band instruments or their European equivalentsor sometimes just Turks themselves as characters in their art. The work then concludes verses with a doxology that reiterates in the final stanza the core data concerning Paron Loys and a brief biography of the poet. English is spoken in all dositheou street nicosia betting French and German are also widely spoken. This book is printed on acid-free paper and produced in a sustainable manner.
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