how are polybrominated diphenyl ethers produced
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How are polybrominated diphenyl ethers produced

It is presumed that PBDEs are endocrine disruptors, but research in this area is scant. Further studies are imperative in a multitude of health and environmental disciplines to determine the adverse effects and mode of action of this widespread emerging pollutant on human health. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers PBDEs are used in paints, plastics, foam furniture padding, textiles, rugs, curtains, televisions, building materials, airplanes and automobiles. The Priority Toxic Pollutants list produced by the United States Environmental Protection Agency does not contain any of the brominated diphenyl ethers.

However California, following the lead of the EU, recently became the first state to pass a bill that will phase out the use of penta- and octa-BDE by PBDEs have been used since the s. They are synthetic compounds used as additives to retard fire and flames in a variety of commercial and household products. The relatively weak carbon-bromine bond is thermally-labile. Advertisement 3. Sample pre-treatment methods Sample pre-treatment steps such as pre-concentration and clean-up are paramount before instrumental analysis [ 2 , 68 ].

The choice of sample pre-treatment step is dependent on the physicochemical properties of the targeted analytes, their concentration in the environment, and the complexity of matrix interference [ 70 , 71 ]. Soxhlet extraction, a traditional liquid-solid extraction method, has been used for decades in the extraction of analytes from their complex solid matrices. However, this method is hindered by several factors such as long extraction duration, excessive solvent consumption, and the need for subsequent clean-up steps [ 74 ].

With increasing demand for economical and fast sample extraction strategies with high enrichment factors, coupled with SPE clean-up procedures, techniques such as UAE, PLE, MAE, and supercritical fluid extraction SFE have been adopted in enrichment of analytes from solid matrices.

UAE encompasses the introduction of a finely divided sample contained in a sample holder in an ultrasonic bath with solvent and subjected to ultrasonic radiation. UAE is a vital technique in achieving sustainable green chemistry and is primarily employed in the extraction of analytes from solid sample matrices [ 75 , 76 ].

This technique can achieve complete extraction with high reproducibility within a short duration. Moreover, small quantities of extraction solvents are used as compared to conventional Soxhlet extraction [ 77 ]. Methanol, acetonitrile, ethanol, and acetone are typical extractants used in this method in minimal volume. Some of the benefits of UAE include faster kinetics and an increase in extraction yield. Ultrasound can also reduce the operating temperature allowing the extraction of thermally labile compounds [ 79 ].

Unlike traditional Soxhlet extraction that consumes a large volume of solvent, PLE, also referred to as pressurized solvent extraction, has been of great interest due to its extraction effectiveness. Extraction of analytes from their environmental matrices is achieved via a synergistic mechanism that proceeds through liquid solvents at elevated temperature and pressure, which altogether enhance extraction throughput as compared with other techniques performed at ordinary atmospheric conditions [ 80 ].

PLE is viewed as another 'green' option for traditional sample extraction methods. High temperature accomplishes a higher dispersion rate, while high pressure keeps the extraction solvent below its boiling point. During the determination of brominated flame retardants in e-waste samples, PLE and UAE were evaluated in regard to extraction efficiencies. When contrasted with the conventional methods, PLE shows a decrease in extraction time and a significant decrease in the overall consumption of organic solvents [ 82 ].

Another type of extraction technique that enables a three-fold reduction in extraction time and solvent is MAE. This is a sample extraction method that employs microwave energy to extract analytes from solid sample matrices in contact with extraction solvents. Microwave energy directly generates heat which initiates molecular motion of the analytes in the solid-solvent complex mixture, hence facilitating the mass transfer of the target analyte from the solid matrix to the extracting solvent [ 83 , 84 ].

Compared with Soxhlet extraction, MAE achieves better recoveries and uses small amounts of solvents 30 mL versus mL for Soxhlet extraction , at the same time allowing control of extraction parameters, such as extraction time and temperature [ 88 ].

However, MAE has some shortcomings, whereby the extracted sample usually contains some matrix interferences, such as lipids and lipophilic compounds, therefore, filtration and clean-up steps are required, which subsequently consume extra organic solvents.

Moreover, the extraction efficiency of SFE can be further improved by the use of modifiers such as acetonitrile, toluene, and tetrahydrofuran [ 89 ]. This technique is a greener alternative to other techniques that use a large volume of solvents. Numerous methodologies have been adopted in the determination of PBDE pollutants in liquid matrices. The extractive capability of LLE is based on the transfer of analytes from an aqueous polar phase to a non-polar organic phase [ 91 ].

However, LLE has some shortcomings; it suffers from low recovery, poor selectivity, high matrix interference in chromatographic analysis and increased sample loads [ 94 ]. In addition, the extraction of PBDEs from water samples requires extremely large volumes of solvents due to their hydrophobic character and low concentration in water, thus limiting its applications [ 95 ]. To overcome these challenges, different configurations of SPE have been adopted in sample enrichment strategies. SPE is a modern sample pre-treatment technique employed to concentrate analytes from liquid samples and to remove matrix interferents during the clean-up step, achieving exemplary recoveries and reproducible results over LLE [ 96 , 97 ].

SPE protocols are usually performed by the use of a small column or separation cartridge packed with an appropriate sorbent material [ 98 , 99 ]. Target analytes are adsorbed by the sorbent materials and later eluted with a solvent that has a greater affinity for the analytes. The chemistry behind this separation is based on intermolecular forces between the analytes, active sites of the adsorbent, and the liquid phase of the matrix [ ].

SPE can be performed through an on-line or off-line approach. The on-line SPE configuration, which may enable automation, is directly coupled with specific analytical systems such as gas chromatography GC or high-performance liquid chromatography HPLC. Whereas in the off-line protocol, a pre-concentration step is done separately using cartridges and further eluting the adsorbed analyte with an appropriate solvent for eventual chromatographic analysis [ ].

Because of its robustness and flexibility, SPE has been widely employed in different analytical procedures in pre-concentration and clean-up steps in the determination of PBDEs [ 96 , ]. While SPE continues to be used because of its affordability and ease of use, other formats that offer high enrichment factors and shorter extraction times, such as SPME, stir-bar sorptive extraction SBSE and dispersive solid-phase extraction DSPE , have been introduced [ ].

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Finished products that may contain PBDEs are furniture foam padding; wire insulation; rugs, draperies, and upholstery; and plastic cabinets for televisions, personal computers, and small appliances. These chemicals can get into the air, water, and soil during their manufacture; they can leak from products that contain them or escape when the products that contain them break down. They do not dissolve easily in water; they stick to particles and settle to the bottom of rivers or lakes.

Some PBDEs can build up in certain fish and mammals when they eat contaminated food or water. Another source of exposure results from breathing contaminated air or swallowing contaminated dust. Working in industries that make these chemicals or that make, repair, or recycle products containing these chemicals flame retardants can result in exposure. Linking to a non-federal website does not constitute an endorsement by CDC or any of its employees of the sponsors or the information and products presented on the website.

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Diphenyl produced how ethers are polybrominated new jersey sports betting status quo

Polybrominated diphenyl ethers-PSA

Abstract. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are an important class of flame retardants, widely used in a variety of consumer products. In the past two decades, PBDEs have become . Naturally produced polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) pervade the marine environment and structurally resemble toxic man-made brominated flame retardants. PBDEs . Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are flame-retardant chemicals that were added to plastics and foam products to make them difficult to burn. These substances are not .